Problem to be Addressed: The Present Situation
In Nigeria, as in most developing countries, there are no organised blood Transfusion
services that can cater for emergency situations. Transfusion services are not effective.
Victims of Road Traffic Accident and those with aneurysmal ruptures and ectopic
pregnancies often die from bleeding internally into the peritoneal cavity. About 250,000
of blood requirements in Nigeria is needed to assist victims of Road Traffic Accident and
women with ruptured ectopic gestation.
Victims of Road Traffic Accident and Ectopic Gestation on reaching the hospital are
examined and diagnostic steps are taken to confirm internal bleeding. Once this is
positive, the relations are requested to donate blood or where they cannot, they proceed
to buy blood from the laboratories. Such blood may be contaminated with malaria parasites,
Hepatitis B virus, Syphilis and the much dreaded AIDS Virus. Over 98% of patients with
internal bleeding who require blood for survival do so from blood donated by other people.
Blood is not usually available early enough and often the patient dies. About 60% of these
would benefit from blood recycling. The absence of this, therefore accounts for the loss
of lives of those who could have survived from recycling their own blood.
Government has in a number of ways encouraged blood donations through campaigns and
setting up of blood banks. However, many of the blood donors in Nigeria escape being
tested for the AIDS virus through dubious professional practices that is rampart in the
third world being a 40 to 200 fold increase observed from 0.02% in 1986 to 4.1% in a
screening centre in 1999. Transfusion can play a major role in the spread of the disease
which trend can partly be checked by autologous transfusion practices using the EAT-SET
devices since the patient's own blood is the safest blood.
There are currently no devices for blood recycling in this part of the world, and the cost
of conducting research into an appropriate device and subsequent development for use in
hospitals was borne by the UNDP with WHO as executing agency. In a broader sense of our
technological need, the then President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria Gen. Ibrahim
Babangida (in a message sent on 18 July 1990 to the All-Purpose Committee on Engineering
infrastructure) called for innovations to develop appropriate application and adaptation
of foreign technology in Nigeria to enhance self-reliance.
SUPPORT THE EATSET & CONTROL AIDS THROUGH BLOOD TRANSFORMATION
A.( i ) The difficulty associated with blood procurement and the
delays resulting from
this will be minimised.
( ii ) The fear of acquiring AIDS and other blood borne infection will be eliminated since
the Patient receives his own blood.
( iii ) The mortality figure and morbidity figure for patients who require blood recycling
would be drastically reduced.
B. The use of donor blood will be greatly reduced and the need to screen
such blood will not be necessary in situations where the patient's blood can be recycled.
C. At the end of the EATSET project, the basis for an emergency
auto-transfusion service would have been initiated. The EATSET which would be introduced
will alleviate the organisational problems since the unit is self contained and does not
require the linkage of various health units in a medical setting.
D. The social religious and cultural constraints to blood transfusion are
also by-passed by the EATSET since the patient receives his own blood. The fear of
acquiring AIDS virus and other infection through blood transfusion would have been abated.
The project would benefit all trauma and accident victims, pregnant women with ectopic
gestations and patients with congenital aneurysms all of whom may suffer internal
bleeding. Thus the general populations stands to benefit.
a.) The level of medical manufacturing in Nigeria is low presently. This has led to
(equipment) dumping of inferior medical
devices and lack of technical backup for imported ones.
b.) Nigeria will acquire the technological know how to produce basic medical tools since
the ultimate objective of the EATSET project is to provide appropriate technology for
medical manufacturing and prevent equipment dumping in Nigeria. EATSET Nigeria Ltd. as
been setup to promote the industrial phase of the project.